Among the different vaccines available for meningitis, one of the most promising is the multi-component serogroup B vaccine. A recent meta-analysis systematically analyzed the actual immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine in children and adolescents.
Ten randomized trials and eight follow-on extension studies were included in the analysis. In the intention-to-treat analyses, the overall percentage of children and adolescents who achieved 30-day seroconversion was 92% for the 44/76-SL strain, 91% for the 5/99 strain, 84% for the NZ98-254 strain and 87% for the M10713 strain.
Six months after the vaccine was administered, immunogenicity remained adequate for all three strains tested on adolescents and children, with the sole exception of M10713 (<50%) and NZ98/254 (<35%) strains . At the same time, however, a booster dose rekindled the percentage of patients who achieved seroconversion (≥93% for all strains).
Immunogenicity remained elevated six months after the booster dose only for the 5/99 (95%) and M10713 (75%) strains, while the percentage of patients who obtained seroconversion in the 44/76-SL and NZ98/254 strains went back to the figures recorded six months after the main dose.
The incidence of acute serious adverse events potentially related to the vaccine in subjects treated with 4CMenB was low (5.4 per 1000 individuals), but was significantly higher than routine vaccines (1.2 per 1000 individuals).
This new vaccine therefore appears to have an acceptable short-term safety profile. The first dose is sufficient to achieve a satisfactory immune response within 30 days, while children need a booster dose to prolong protection against certain strains.
Maria Elena Flacco, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of the multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine (4CMenB) in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious diseases, Published: 19 January 2018.
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